Sunday, October 28, 2012

Golf Courses of Uganda Part 7, Uganda Golf Course, Kampala

It has taken time for us to get round to visiting the golf course at Kampala. The reasons for this you can read below in the italicised text contributed by Stuart. As luck would have it, the day I accompanied Stuart was an absolutely foul day. We got to the course and the heavens opened - and continued to remain open until I gave up at the 9th hole and went off for a coffee elsewhere. At this point the sun appeared. The second time Stuart went, last Thursday, he went on his own. If you read our previous post you will see that he was 'playing truant' from the Education and Sports Sector Review, a perfectly understandable response to a quite incomprehensible situation.

I have to say the Kampala course is not the most scenic course in Uganda, though perfectly pleasant no doubt when the sun is shining, but then I judge courses by different criteria from Stuart, so we'd better move on fast to the expert analysis.

9th green
The Uganda Golf Course in Kampala is a good track, worth playing. But note that it is not value for money at a ridiculous £70 per round for visitors. You’ll be much better taking the trip to Entebbe Golf Club where you’ll pay £12.50 per round, and you’ll be out in the wide open spaces near Lake Victoria. The length of the course is 6684 yards – remarkably, exactly the same yardage as Entebbe.  

[However, I felt that despite the generous yardage and tree-lined fairways and so on, there was a cramped feel about the course. This was probably because it has been increasingly encroached on and now the supermarkets and hotels crowd so close that you never quite feel you're 'out in the open'.]

I've played the course a couple of times recently (my membership of Jinja Golf Club came through entitling me to the ridiculously cheap fee of £1.50). The course was a fair test for me (a 13 handicapper). The tees, fairways, bunkers and greens were not 'immaculate' or 'manicured', but they were in pretty good nick and, I have to say, better than those in Entebbe.

The Kampala course comprises a good range of 18 holes in 'rolling parkland' with a few steepish slopes, broad tree-lined fairways, and a burn (the Kitante Channel) that meanders throughout. Most of the holes are well-designed with the burn coming into play quite appropriately, several thought-provoking doglegs, and some well-positioned bunkers. Par is 72: four par 5s and three par 3s on the front nine, one par 5 and two par 3s on the back nine. The course plays all of its 6684 yards, but whereas Entebbe has a par 4 of 473 yards (for me unreachable in 2), Kampala’s 476 yard hole is a much more generous par 5.

1st tee

The 1st hole, a 509 yard par 5, really needs you to be in full swing right from the start. Your initial drive up a short, steepish slope should aim for the left side of the fairway. Anything right of centre will bounce down towards trees and trouble. But a good drive, followed by a good 3-wood (keep it left) and a pitch should see you to a very satisfactory par to start with. 

Putting on 1st green
The 2nd, a slightly downhill 392 yard par 4, bends round and to the right. Again, aiming left off the tee should take you down to the centre of the fairway, and a mid-iron to the left side of the green will see you roll down nicely. Two putts and we’ve started par, par. 

2nd tee
2nd fairway
Marabou storks by the 2nd green - and a car park.
[You can see from the photo below of Stuart putting on the 2nd green, what I meant about the city buildings crowding in on what was - not all that long ago - a large open wooded park, with a golf course at its heart. By the way, this is the first time we've been on a golf course which was patrolled by armed police.]

2nd green
Turning back towards the clubhouse, the 3rd is a flat, straight and straightforward 544 yard par 5. The fairway is broad enough for there to be no excuse for hitting the trees on the right or burn on the left. A straight drive, 3-wood and pitch will give you a third successive par. 

3rd fairway
The 129 yard 4th hole, stroke index 18, looks easy enough from the tee. But with the burn and bunkers circling the front apron, trees to the right and sand at the back, you need to be careful. As a 13 handicapper, I think we’d better return to reality and assume less than perfection. So I’ll be relatively happy with a four that takes me to a commendable one over par for the first four holes.

Crossing to the 4th hole, misty skyscrapers in the background.
Muddy path and muddy grass - the 4th hole.
[You can see from the photo below how close you are to the road. The slope ends at the top with the pavement of the main Yusuf Lule Road, a dual carriage way flanked by modern office blocks and stores.]

[Here the non-golf-playing partner got distracted by a splendid vulture which observed the proceedings with some bemusement.]

The 5th, a 501 yard par 5 takes us away to the south boundary of the course. 

5th fairway, with marabou storks.
Approaching the 5th green
It is stroke index 6 (I would suggest SI 3 would be nearer the truth) and requires a drive that avoids the burn on the left and the trees on the right. A good drive will encourage you to go for a 3-wood carry over the burn. About 100 yards in front of the green the burn meanders round to catch the less-than-perfect  3-wood, or the duffed pitch. I’ll accept a bogey and move swiftly on to the 6th which is probably the least interesting hole. 

[The hole might have been uninteresting, but it was very wet.]

A 164 yard par 3, it’s there simply to take you up the hill to the 7th. Let’s award ourselves a par and head for the 7th tee.  A bit more testing this par 4: 414 yards slightly uphill and bending left. You need to aim for the mango tree half-way up the right-hand rough, then hit a medium-to-long iron to come down to the green from the right. A bogey is a likely outcome (and we are talking stroke index 2). 

The 539 yard par 5 8th is a well-shaped hole and not too difficult. If you tackle the severe dogleg left down the slope to the green with a drive up the right, a good 3-wood round the corner and an accurate pitch/chip, you could well be looking at birdie (but probably not me). 

Putting on the 8th green
The par 3 178 yard 9th is straightforward – for me, a nice straight 4-iron on to a large, receptive green will assure my par. So, out in a 3 over par 40 (I wish!).

The 9th hole, taken from the road above.
At 433 yards, the par 4 10th needs a good drive and a longish iron to reach the green. With trees on the right and the burn on the left, there is not a huge margin for error. Indeed, due to the length factor, we’ll assume bogey either here or at the 11th - a 220 yard par 3 with a huge green but with the burn punishing the fade/slice. 
11th hole
We’ve now come back to the clubhouse and across the main road. The 448 yard par 4 12th is stroke index 1 (very understandably). A good drive from an elevated tee down the left will be fine, but a slice will take you into that blessed burn. And if you don’t hit your long second shot to the green on the button, you’ll be in the burn that’s come round the front of the green or the “bale-out” bunker to the right of the green. Let’s take bogey and move on. We’ve only played 10, 11 and 12, and we’re already 2 over par on the inward half.

However, the par 5 13th at 476 yards should not be a problem as long as your drive carries the broad dip between tee and fairway. Thereafter, there’s plenty of room as you climb up a wide fairway to the green. At the 374 yard par 4 14th you find an inviting elevated tee encouraging you to blast the ball down the hill for an easy pitch up to the green. Still 2 over for the inward half. 

However, the 15th (par 4 410 yards) could well bite you. A severe dogleg left, your drive must soar over a large mango tree on your left and land on the fairly limited area of fairway that will give you an unimpeded (beware trees on the left) approach to the green. Bogey is likely. The par 4 16th at 406 yards (avoid main road on your right) and par 3 17th at 145 yards (avoid bunker front left) are fairly straightforward, and we’ll assume pars. 

So we are on the 18th tee on a total of 6 over par. It’s a 402 yard par 4. I’ll be happy to bag another par, and I really should with a good drive into the heart of an upsloping fairway. A good middle iron up the hill to the heart of the green avoiding bunkers to right and left sees me finish with par and a round of 78 (6 over). And well chuffed!

Thursday, October 25, 2012

The national inspection report that never was

The last couple of days are among the most important in Uganda's education calendar, almost as important as the Primary Leaving Examinations (PLE). The Education and Sports Sector Review (ESSR) brings together the great and the good from the Ministry, local government, education development partners (international donors), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and various other hangers on. Stuart and I also tagged along. Well, I did -  Stuart's tolerance, for reasons I am about to explain, had well and truly run out. As usual in Uganda, the meeting started an hour late, the first presentations were irredeemably dull and it was matoke and goat stew for lunch. Stuart left after coffee.

The aim of the ESSR is to review progress on the priorities in the previous year's Education Sector Plan (ESP) and draft new targets for next year. Stuart and I, and our colleagues in the Directorate of Education Standards (DES, the national inspectorate), have been very busy preparing for this review, Stuart in particular. He has spent weeks gathering, analysing and collating the findings of all inspections carried out during 2010/2011 across the primary, secondary, business, technical, vocational (BTVET) and teacher education sectors . He then drafted the Inspectorate's annual report for ESSR, consulted on it with our colleagues and redrafted it many times over, an activity which consumed his working hours and spilled over into several evenings and weekends. This report is arguably the most comprehensive and authoritative DES report ever.

My task was far simpler: to draft the speech in which our Director would present the report and launch half a dozen booklets on school improvement. And, indeed, the Director had several interesting inspection findings to report. However, the key purpose of both the annual report and the Director's presentation was to inform decisions about appropriate targets for improvement in next year's ESP. So, this was major. These targets, scrutinised closely by educational development partners (embassies and their development wings like USAID and UKAID), have the potential to change the educational experiences of all Ugandan children. And believe you me, they need changing - drastically.

One would imagine that the report from the professional education inspectorate would be a key element in a national education review.

In all other countries yes. In Uganda? Alas no.

After weeks of what sounds like posturing and infighting in the planning committee, the 'other side' of the Ministry decided - just before the ESSR - that due to 'pressures of time' caused by an entirely predictable public holiday on a Friday, the national inspectorate's input would be removed from the programme. And not just the Director's presentation, but the actual report itself. So, the backwoodsmen and women won.

Clearly, in Uganda it is possible - indeed, desirable - to identify targets for education improvement without taking into account the findings of the country's own professional education evaluators. Could it be that the messages looked as if they might be just a teeny bit unwelcome?

Who knows? As far as the participants at this ESSR are concerned, there is no national report on education quality across all the districts and municipalities in the country and all four sectors. (Unlike last year when the Director did present the inspectorate's "state of the nation" report.) Neither the participants nor the general public (for the press was there) will ever know what the national inspectorate found when they made inspection visits across the country over the last year.

So, sorry about that. All readers like you can do is speculate. To while away the time then, let's do a bit of speculation together.

Let's start with PRIMARY EDUCATION.

Inspections of primary schools are carried out by local government (LG) inspectors, not by DES, though they send their reports to DES and DES monitors the quality of their inspections. I wonder what the DES inspectors might have told the ESSR about primary inspection? Possibly this.
  • Only half the districts accounted for the funds they had been given to carry out inspection and submitted their reports on schools to DES.
In fact, the non-existent ESSR report might even have listed the names of the districts which failed to account for their funds. Pure speculation, of course, but it might have been useful for participants to see that list - unless, of course, for some reason, the men and women from the Ministry would rather it didn't exist.

Potential implications?

Many of the planned inspections of primary schools may not have been carried out, and the quality of education schools provide may have been left unmonitored. Perhaps the inspection funds were diverted into other activities (or people's pockets). You'll never know, of course, because there is no DES report on inspection for ESSR.

Potential impact?

LG inspectors play a crucial role in ensuring that basic requirements and minimum standards are in place in schools. If they don't do their work properly, many children end up suffering from poor quality teaching and may not be safe in school. Their learning and achievements may be significantly lower than would otherwise be the case.

Let's speculate a bit more. In those districts which actually bothered to submit reports, what kind of findings might their inspectors have come up with, if there had been a report to ESSR? Something like this, perhaps?
  • 74% of teachers were absent from school on the day it was inspected. 
This is a far worse figure than the 80% teacher attendance the ESSR produced yesterday in its hurried and superficial field 'validation exercise'. Not surprising. The DES findings are based on a far larger sample over a longer period of time than in the validation exercise, and schools could not predict when inspectors would be visiting.

Potential impact?

Across the country, in the absence of their teachers, many children may not have been learning and may have been left unsupervised and unsafe at school.


Very quickly, let's speculate a bit more as to what the national inspectors might have found in their analysis of reports on primary schools. Perhaps it was something like this.
  • In some areas, the school day was far too long (often from 7am till after 6pm, sometimes till 10pm).
  • Children suffered from continuous testing. Teachers do not understand what is meant by continuous assessment.
  • Too few inspections were followed up.
  • 80% of districts reported delays in the receipt of funds for Universal Primary Education (UPE) [For each child, schools receive the princely sum of Shs5,000 per term, £1.25.]
  • Teaching was of poor quality, mostly rote learning and with inadequate provision for special needs.
  • Standards of hygiene, water and sanitation were poor.
  • Corporal punishment was at unacceptable levels: 91% of P3 and 88% of P6 had been beaten .
  • There were major issues about the safety and security of children.
Potential implications?

If this was a real report rather than an imaginary one, DES might have concluded that children were being let down by headteachers, teachers and district officials, the very people who should put their interests first.

We can speculate that while some children (mostly poor, rural) are missing out on the benefits of education, others (mostly wealthier, urban) are suffering under unacceptably long hours of study, both on weekdays and weekends. This shows that teachers may not be planning effectively so that they cover the curriculum within school hours.

In the report that never was, inspectors might have found that too much time was lost to teaching by an over-emphasis on testing and cramming. Children do not learn from repeated testing. In fact, it reduces curriculum coverage, leading to less learning. Lack of opportunities for critical thinking and independent learning hamper children's intellectual development.

The non-existent report could have found that many primary schools are violent places where children learn violence from their teachers. In some schools, children are allowed to cane other children: an unacceptable practice. Child welfare issues are critical in ensuring that every child in Uganda gets a fair deal and is not physically or sexually damaged in any way at home, at school or elsewhere.

The report that never was would probably have added that schools were not able to do their work properly, owing to a lack of sufficient funds released by the government at the right time for use in supporting learning.

Potential impact?

One of the most worrying aspects of the report that never was, is how little schools and districts actually knew about the educational and other outcomes achieved by their learners. The report might well have found that children's achievements were too low and that their safety at school was not assured. Child safety depends on districts gathering and analysing data relating to child protection so that they can take the necessary steps and provide the country as a whole with an accurate view of key issues.

Overall, in the report that never was, inspectors found that in primary schools there were major weaknesses in ALL aspects of provision.


Now, let us speculate about the effectiveness of primary inspection itself, as judged by the national inspectorate. Perhaps they found something like this.
  • LG inspectors have a limited understanding of the quality framework they have been trained to use.
  • Some found it difficult to be objective and gave inflated evaluations of schools in their districts.
  • They did not routinely analyse attendance rates, trends in PLE results or child protection statistics.
  • Their explanation and analysis of data was non-existent or sketchy.
Potential implications?

Without effective analysis of data, LG inspectors would not know whether attainment in their district was getting better, getting worse or staying the same - as found by the report that never was. In the report that never was, many inspectors also did not know how many children had been the victims of violence, both sexual abuse and physical beatings, nor how many cases had been dropped in exchange for money.

Potential impact?

If districts know so little about their schools and the welfare of, and educational outcomes achieved by learners, they will find it very difficult to take action to improve them.


Now let's move onto SECONDARY EDUCATION, where national DES inspectors carry out the inspections themselves. The report that never was would have had two key sources of evidence: inspection findings in relation to basic requirements and minimum standards; and inspections for science and maths in a sample of schools and districts. It is possible that the ESSR used some of this data but did not acknowledge its source in DES inspection.

Let us speculate as to the possible findings overall.

  • Most schools, especially private schools, did not meet basic requirements and minimum standards.
  • Only 66% of headteachers and 50% of teachers were present on the day of the inspection.
  • Schemes of work were inadequate, lessons poorly prepared and there was no continuous assessment. 
  • Few schools had functional libraries and science laboratories.
  • Staffing in science and maths was inadequate.
  • Support supervision was irregular and ineffective.
  • Lesson planning was poor and there was very little interactive teaching and learning.
  • Curriculum coverage was inadequate.
  • There were serious concerns about safety and security. Many schools and boarding facilities were unlicensed. In fact, most private schools operated illegal boarding facilities. 
Potential impact?

This imaginary report indicates that secondary students are often unsafe and do not receive sufficient teaching. Their work is poorly assessed and does not reach appropriate standards.

As a result, learners may be ill prepared for their future lives in a technological society. Their limited educational diet and lack of opportunity to develop thinking skills and creativity may be obstacles to their personal development as well as to their future contribution to national development.

Secondary education will not improve unless primary education makes drastic improvements to the quality of teaching, learning and skills development and in the quality of outcomes achieved by learners before they enter secondary school. However, that, of course, is just speculation.

Overall, the report that never was found that there were important weaknesses in the extent to which secondary schools met basic requirements, and that education in science and maths had major weaknesses.


We can speculate that many of these weaknesses may also have been present in BTVET INSTITUTIONS. Here are some of the possible findings in the report that never was.
  • Staff appraisal was infrequent and rarely informed staff development.
  • Lesson planning and preparation were poor.
  • There was inadequate monitoring and supervision of teaching and learning by senior staff.
  • There was inadequate monitoring of attendance.
  • There was almost no self-evaluation and little monitoring of outcomes for learners.
  • There were poor arrangements for health, sanitation and security.
Potential impact?

Improvements in the quality of the training provided by BTVET institutions will only be possible when leaders and managers have put in place quality systems which lead to effective planning for improvement and improved outcomes for young people.

Overall, the quality of BTVET education was poor across almost all aspects.


The report that never was also evaluated aspects of TEACHER EDUCATION: the work of coordinating centre tutors (CCTs - the outreach tutors in primary teachers' colleges) and the quality of non-core primary teachers' colleges (PTCs). Its findings could well have been as follows.
  • CCTs' planning was weak and did not focus on the needs of individual schools and teachers.
  • Less than half of CCTs supported teachers adequately to help them prepare effective lessons.
  • The required bi-monthly reviews are not undertaken.
  • CCTs are not sufficiently familiar with the processes of school self-evaluation.
  • CCTs have little impact in mobilising the community.
  • The provision and management of PTC buildings is poor, with many being dangerous and dilapidated.
  • Staff development is weak, staff appraisal infrequent and CPD needs are not identified well.
  • Few pre-service tutors present students with models of good teaching and learning.
Potential implications?

The poor quality teaching, learning and assessment in primary schools are not going to improve unless teachers develop better professional skills during pre-service training and post-service CPD support. Students are generally expected to learn by rote and receive few opportunities for discussion, problem solving and independent research and critical thinking.

Potential impact?

It is hardly surprising that when students qualify, their own teaching may be ineffective. Few will have observed or experienced effective up-to-date teaching themselves.

The poor management of teaching and learning processes in PTCs clearly has a detrimental impact on the quality of teaching in schools across the country. There are important weaknesses in the overall quality of teacher education.


A root and branch review is needed of the leadership and management of PTCs and their effectiveness in training teachers in successful delivery of the skills and outcomes expected of education in the 21st century.

So this is a bit of the evidence and a few of the evaluations of Ugandan education which the men and women from Ministry may not want you to know about.

Now, of course, none of these findings are real. These are just a few extracts from an imaginary report, a report that might have been presented to the ESSR if anybody had been interested or thought it useful. In order to address the issues raised by the report that never was, DES developed a new approach to inspection, one which was going to be outlined at the ESSR. Alas, another casualty. The new guides to school improvement are another approach to improving quality in schools and are intended for the trainign and support of local government inspectors and CCTs. Fortunately, these guides do exist and received a modest 'launch' at the ESSR.

A professional report of this status is substantial: 33 pages of carefully argued and expressed non-existent print in this case. It contains examples, evaluative detail and extracts from the wider evidence base. The evidence contained in a professional evaluator's report is based on a range of indicators: qualitative and quantitative. DES uses a set of indicators published in its Handbook for School Inspectors, Education Standards Agency*, 2005, for transparency is essential. Evidence is triangulated and carefully weighed. However, none of this background information is relevant as the report, as we know, does not exist.

This may be unfortunate for those you who may be interested in reading such an authoritative report about the state of Uganda's education system. You can ask around your contacts in the education world, but I suspect that, sadly, it is now well and truly dead. Odd to think that only two or three days ago, it was alive and kicking and waiting to be launched into a welcoming world!

This post is an obituary, really, for the ill-fated ESSR report on Ugandan education and for our own many failed and (as it now appears) unwelcome attempts to help Uganda improve the quality of its education. Stuart can't wait to get home. I do at least have the satisfaction of knowing that some people are interested in the guides to school improvement and may use them.

This little girl is what it's all about. School is still ahead of her. What kind of education will she receive?

* The Education Standards Agency is the body which used to carry out inspections in Uganda. It was replaced by the Directorate of Education Standards in, I think, 2008 or thereabouts. The reason for the change? An agency is pretty much independent of government interference, an important status for an inspectorate which needs to write honest and transparent accounts of the quality of what it finds. DES, however, is a Ministry department. It is therefore not independent.

You may also be interested in the following post.

Are our children learning? Dark educational clouds with a hint of a silver lining

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Fish, fishermen and fish eagles, all at Lake Malawi

You have to like fish if you visit Lake Malawi; there are 850 different kinds. Some people insist the number is nearer 1,000, but I tend to be more moderate in my claims. How different from Lake Victoria's boring old tilapia and Nile perch! Most of Malawi's fish are cichlids, which means that they care for their young. If you are a female Malawian cichlid, your maternal duties include carrying your eggs in your mouth.

Now that you are suitably fascinated or repelled, it is time for me to make the connection between fish and the Ritchies. No, it's not because we are fish-eaters: only one of us eats fish while the other one keeps going on about bones. Nor is it because we are anglers - far too easily bored and also far too squeamish. No, the connection is that we're quite good at watching other people do fishy things while we sit comfortably (well, reasonably so) on a plank at the bottom of a boat.

When we left the lodge, the air was already fragrant with the smell of usipa, little sardine-like fish which are dried and added to sauces. They were spread out on trestle tables on the beach, with the fishermen and wives turning each one over laboriously with forks to ensure they all get their fair share of sun.

However, usipa didn't interest us. We were making for Thumbi island, uninhabited and, probably uninhabitable, but just the place to find a few more of the 850 varieties.

If we were not such wimps, we would have been snorkelling. However, the water was so clear we could actually see the fish from the boat. Just to prove it, here I am in a white shirt hanging off the stern hoping I won't drop my camera.

And this is what we saw.

Actually, I have about 72 pictures of fish but thought your tolerance might run out if I insisted on showing them all - like with our parents' holiday slide shows. So believe me, there were yellow ones, black ones, black and yellow ones, blue ones, blue stripey ones. ('Enough!' says Stuart.)

Thumbi island might be uninhabited but it was clearly not deserted, as this helpful message about personal health and sanitation indicated.

The professional fishermen were also out and about, though more interested in the edible and sellable variety.

One dugout was drawn up on the shore, though I wasn't too sure about the twine which appeared to hold its cracked prow together.

Its owner had had some success catching chambo, well known as the tastiest fish in the lake, if rather small.

Other dugouts were dotted all over the lake, some with a plank across the prow, presumably for stability.

Actually, the Malawian way of using a dugout is quite distinctive. It involves sitting astride the breadth of the canoe: this man changed position once he'd reached where he wanted. Apparently, dugouts are notoriously easy to turn over and the astride position makes it easier to control. It's also quite a squeeze getting down inside a dugout.

However, the fishermen weren't the only creatures searching for fish.

Yes, the fish eagles were keeping a good look out.

Then one swooped down.

And then another.

And another.

They dipped and rose again, the fish clutched tightly in their claws.

But eventually even the fish eagles got weary and as for us, we needed our very late lunch. Time to go back for the wonderful fish soup made by Cape Mac Lodge.

Life was going on as usual along the shoreline.

Men were mending their nets..

...and mending their boats.

Further down the shore the boats had been slightly slicker.

Small boys called to us as we chugged past.

Their older brothers were lounging around, some diving, some throwing fishing lines.

It had been a wonderful day out, even if we hadn't caught any fish ourselves. As the sun began to set, the last fishermen pulled across the bay. Some would be out all night, their lights hovering across the lake.

However, it was sundowner time for us.

We took our drinks and sat in the garden, watching as the sun gradually sank towards the lake.

We might not have seen 850 different fish, but we had certainly seen a lot. Time, now, for bed.